Two-dimensional codes: stacked codes, matrix codes, QR code, DataMatrix code

The one-dimensional bar code is commonly used to label goods and services. However, since the data density of such codes is low, applications intended for this purpose use two-dimensional codes (2D codes or 2D barcodes) whose data capacity exceeds that of conventional barcodes or barcodes many times over. Two-dimensional codes are therefore used when a larger information memory is required…

Overview and definition of the identification technology barcode

Coded information can be stored in many different ways. In addition to mechanical, magnetic and electronic storage, a conventional type of storage has also become established, not least due to the further development of optical reading systems - the barcode (also known as the barcode). Barcodes are based on the binary principle, which is represented by a certain number of wide and narrow…

Information encoding with binary codes

The main purpose of encoding data is to store, transport, and automatically read data at the highest possible speed and reliability. The automatic readability of codes is the basic prerequisite for smooth transport and storage operation. For example, the message of an automatically readable destination address is displayed in numbers. However, these figures are usually not decimals (clear),…

Electronic Product Code (EPC)

The electronic product code EPC is an international product identification. Each product can thus be identified worldwide and it is intended to replace the European Article Number (EAN). The EPC is stored in an RFID transponder. The code is primarily used to identify a product but may contain additional information such as production location, whereabouts, or shipping information. The EPC allows…

Overview – Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC)

Each shipping unit, which can be a pallet or a carton, for example, is automatically assigned a "Serial Shipping Container Code" (prev. "Serial Shipping Container Code" (SSCC)). This is a globally unique and unmistakable sequence of digits that makes it possible to trace shipments from the sender to the recipient across companies. It is 18 digits long, is usually required for identificationin…

The barcode – EAN, GTIN and GS1 standard

Barcodes have successfully established themselves over other systems in recent years. The barcode is a binary code consisting of an array of parallel bars and separation gaps. These are arranged according to a predetermined image and are interpreted as specific characters or character strings. The reading can be done with a laser scanner. The different reflection of a laser beam on the black…

Advantages of RFID technology over barcodes

What advantages does RFID radio technology have over barcodes? This question has also been on the agenda of intralogistics for some time now. In principle, more information is available with the conventional use of RFID. Moreover, logistics and production processes can be optimized faster and more quickly through the active exchange of information by RFID transponders. Radio transmission via RFID…

Stock Keeping Unit (SKU)

The acronym SKU, Stock Keeping Unit, describes a clearly identifiable storage unit. A storage unit comprises all identical articles of a particular product variant. For identification purposes, a code is applied to the respective SKU, which clearly defines the stock-keeping product by means of a combination of numbers and, if necessary, additional letters. The code, consisting of numbers and…

What is an item number? Development, areas of application and definition

An item number is used to differentiate, categorize and uniquely identify retail items. It is assigned only once for a specific article or a specific variant of the corresponding article. This distinctiveness and uniqueness refers to the underlying system in each case. This can be the company's own product range, its own warehouse or a globally valid standard. Function and representation of…

Functionality of a CCD Camera

CCD stands for Charge-coupled Device. Within a CCD camera, light-sensitive elements (CCD sensors) are mounted in the focal point of a lens system. The fast, parallel-serial scanning of the individual points (pixels) resolves a bar code to a point grid. A minimum pixel number must result in the projection of a narrow stroke to resolve. The code recorded by the CCD sensor is reproduced as an…

Push system and pull system in supply chains

Supply chain management refers to the value chain from the supplier to the end consumer. Depending on the direction of the supply chain, there are two systems. The push system and the pull system. A company can trigger the production or delivery of products by orienting itself towards past values and thus producing with foresight or by waiting for a specific customer order. Process in the Push…

Definition of Accounting / Bookkeeping

The term accounting describes the comprehensive recording, storage and analysis or evaluation of all measurable business transactions/processes in a company. For this purpose, profit and balance sheet ratios from the general accounting are set in relation to the ratios from the different departments (sales, production, personnel). The aim of accounting is the systematic recording and…

Function of a laser scanner

An precisely focused and finely bundled laser beam is used as a light source for the laser scanner's reading system. The laser beam is deflected by a rotating polygon mirror, creating an upandlandy laser beam. This is forwarded to the barcode carrier and then projected onto a photo receiver as a reflecting beam of varying degrees via a mirror and lens system. There, the optical pulses are…

Inventory in companies and in logistics

In the inventory, the assets of a company are determined on a key date; in this way, assets and liabilities are specifically documented. Such an inventory is a prerequisite for correct bookkeeping and accounting.Read more

Goods Receipt in intralogistics – definition and overview

The design and scope of the goods receipt are relevant for the performance of a warehouse. If the goods receipt is incorrectly planned or poorly organized, this can lead to disruptions in operations. In the business process of goods receipt, articles are identified and first checked visually for completeness and damage. Articles are then recorded and re-labelled if necessary. After a successful…

Definition – Omni-Channel

Omni-Channel focuses on the further development of multi and cross-channel distribution paths in online retailing: all sales channels can be used simultaneously. To apply the Latin term Omni (everything, whole, everyone) in a "commercial" setting, the product range, marketing and the channels themselves have to be configured centrally.Read more

Enterprise Resource Planning System (ERP System)

As an application program, an enterprise resource planning system (ERP system) supports all task areas and processes of a company, such as procurement, production, sales, accounting and human resources. With the use of standard application software packages, resource planning is supported and data redundancy is reduced. Integrated software system for efficient resource planning in the ERP system…

Storage capacity/storage economy

Storage capacity is defined as the maximum number of loading units that a warehouse can hold. It also represents the actual capacity of a warehouse. It directly relates to the size of the storage area, the height of the warehouse (usable space), the structure and turnover rate of the inventories and ultimately the economic efficiency of a warehouse. Economic efficiency is determined by many key…

Mobile and stationary loading units

Loading units are collections of goods that are transported, transhipped or stored as they pass through the supply chain. In contrast to stationary units, mobile units can be freely transported, stacked and moved. Mobile loading units Good examples of mobile loading units are boxes, packages, pallets and drums, which in turn can be part of a larger loading unit. For example, a pallet consists…

Definition of the software principle ‘clean architecture’

Clean architecture' is an IT application implementation style. At the heart of clean architecture and similar styles such as hexagonal architecture is the ability to test and develop the business application independently of the rest of the infrastructure. Therefore, in clean architecture, the business rules form the actual core of the application and thus define its value. Especially in complex…

Point of sale systems, warehouse management and branch logistics

A cash register system, also known as a POS system, is software that documents a specific financial transaction of an inventory or a good. In general, the POS system describes the entirety of all clients (hardware) and associated software used that are linked to an electronic or PC cash register; this now also includes mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. There are two types of cash…

Human-machine interfaces in the industry

The human-machine interface represents the analog or digital interaction interface between a person, i.e. a user, and a machine. It is a part of human-machine communication (also human-machine interaction). In its simplest form, this interface can be a simple on-off switch; in a more sophisticated form, it can be the software interface of an enterprise-wide IT system. With growing digitization in…

Picking type Pick-by-Scan (also Pick-by-PDT)

The picking method Pick-by-Scan is a paperless picking process that is supported by a portable data collection terminal, PDT for short. The PDT replaces the classic picking list in paper form. Mobile handheld computers with integrated 1D or 2D barcode scanners are used to guide the employee step by step through the individual pick positions. During the picking round trip, the handheld…

Distance selling contract

A distance contract is a contract concluded between an entrepreneur and a consumer by means of distance communication. The means of distance communication include letters, catalogs, telephone calls, faxes, e-mails as well as radio and other media services. Distance contracts can be contracts involving the delivery of goods or the provision of a service. Services include financial services, i.e.…

CMR: the consignment note

The term CMR comes from the French, Convention relative au Contrat de transport international de marchandises par route. It describes the agreement of all participating states on the contract for the international carriage of goods by road. All arrangements can be read in detail in the consignment note. In principle, this is handed over to the carrier before the transport. Read more

Networked Production: Computer-integrated Manufacturing

Computer-integrated manufacturing, or CIM for short, stands for computer-controlled machine and automation systems, which are generally used in the manufacture of products. CIM uses different technologies and their technical functions such as Computer-Aided Design (CAD), Computer-Aided Planning (CAP), Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) and Computer-Aided Quality Assurance (CAQ). The combination…