This glossary is based on data from logipedia, kindly provided by the Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics IML. The authors Michael ten Hompel (eds.) and Volker Heidenblut hold the complete copyrights of all glossary contents.

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  • 1st Tier Supplier
    A 1st Tier Supplier, also known as a First Tier Supplier, is an essential part of the supply pyramid in various industries. This term refers to the supplier that delivers directly to the manufacturer of a product or component. This direct relationship makes the 1st Tier Supplier an important(...)
  • 2-out-of-5-Barcode
    A 2-out-of-5 barcode is a numeric barcode that is used in various industries and applications. This particular barcode consists of a series of vertical lines that have different widths. The 2-out-of-5 barcode allows for the encoding of numeric data and is often used for inventory and(...)
  • 2PL
    A 2PL, abbreviated for Second Party Logistics Provider, is an essential player in the logistics industry. This term refers to a company that provides specialized logistics services to other companies. Unlike the 3PL (Third Party Logistics Provider), which acts as an external service provider,(...)
  • 3-tier architecture
    A 3-tier architecture, also referred to as a three-tier software architecture, is a commonly used structure for software application development. This architecture consists of three layers, each of which performs specific functions and tasks. The first layer, also called the presentation(...)
  • 3-D code
    A 3-D code, also known as a three-dimensional code, represents a further development of the conventional 2-D code. While a 2-D code encodes information in two dimensions, the 3-D code enables an additional third dimension through the use of colors. The color components of the 3-D code help(...)
  • 3PL
    A 3PL, abbreviated to Third Party Logistics Provider, is a company that provides logistics services for other companies. In contrast to internal logistics departments, a 3PL acts as an external service provider and performs various tasks along the supply chain. A 3PL provides a wide range(...)
  • 4PL
    A 4PL, also known as a Fourth Party Logistics Provider, is a highly specialized service provider in the logistics industry. Unlike 3PLs (Third Party Logistics Providers), which already offer logistics services, a 4PL goes one step further and takes over the entire coordination and management(...)
  • 6LoWPAN
    6LoWPAN, abbreviated for IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks, is a protocol that enables devices to communicate in low-power wireless networks. It is based on the IPv6 Internet protocol and was developed specifically for networking Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The main(...)
  • 6 Sigma
    Six Sigma, abbreviated as 6 Sigma, is a quality management method that aims to improve process efficiency and reduce defects. It was developed by Motorola in the 1980s and has since been applied in many companies around the world. The main goal of Six Sigma is to maximize the quality of(...)
  • A-Frame
    An A-frame, also known as a shaft picker, is a logistical device specifically designed for efficient picking of goods. The name is derived from the A-shaped arrangement of the chutes, which are typically arranged in a frame. The main function of an A-frame is to optimize the picking process(...)
  • a-Si
    Amorphous silicon, also known as a-Si, is a form of silicon that does not have a crystalline structure. Unlike crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon consists of a disordered arrangement of atoms, which gives it its amorphous properties. Amorphous silicon is produced by various processes(...)
  • ABAP
    ABAP, also known as Advanced Business Application Programming, is a programming language designed specifically for developing enterprise applications in the SAP environment. It was introduced by SAP, a leading provider of business software. The main function of ABAP is to create custom(...)
  • Image
    An image, also known as a representation, is a simplified replica of a planned or real system. It serves as a conceptual or representational abstraction and provides an easily understood representation of the system's processes and functionalities. The degree of abstraction of a replica can(...)
  • ABC
    Activity-based costing (ABC) is a method of cost allocation in companies. It is based on the idea that costs are incurred not only because of products or services, but also because of the activities and processes required to provide them. ABC aims to accurately determine the actual costs of(...)
  • Data tapping
    Tapping, in the context of data, is a term used as a synonym for the term access. The term refers to the ability to access certain information, resources or functions. In the IT world, the term tap is often used in the context of databases, computer networks, or software. It describes the(...)
  • Automatic small parts warehouse
    Miniload warehouse (automatic small parts warehouse) is an automatic system for the storage of small-volume units, mostly containers, with low to medium weight. If containers or other units are stored on trays, this is also called tray storage. It is operated by rail-guided stacker cranes(...)
  • Definition - Benchmarking
    Benchmarking refers to a systematic comparison of performance based on objective performance criteria. It also describes the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a company, measured against a benchmark, which is a reference value resulting from a performance comparison. It(...)
  • Blocked stock area
    A blocked stock area, represents a clearly delineated or enclosed zone within a warehousing or manufacturing operation. Goods and parts that are no longer suitable for further use for various reasons are stored in this area. The function of a blocked stock area is to safely segregate(...)
  • Code 128: Four-width barcode with 106 bars
    Code 128 is a widely used four-width barcode that is used in various industries due to its versatility and efficiency. Its mappable character set includes not only the 128 ASCII characters, but also 100 digit tuples from 00 to 99, four special characters, four control characters, as well as(...)
  • Definition - Batch
    A batch is (in addition to the continuous article number) an additional identifier of the article units, since despite following the respective formula, unacceptable differences can arise for the customer from production batch to production batch (e.g. tinting of wallpaper or wool) or, due to(...)
  • Definition - Batch size
    Batch size defines the number of a product variant that is produced without changeover or interruption of the production process. Batch size is also the number of pieces of goods that are scheduled within an order. Source: logipedia / Fraunhofer IML
  • Definition - Forklift
    A Forklift is an industrial truck that is used especially for lifting and moving pallets. The characteristic feature is that the load is picked up and moved outside the wheel base. In order to prevent the vehicle from tipping over the front axle, the load must be supported by a counterweight.(...)
  • Definition of the value chain
    The value chain is a management concept by Michael E. Porter that portrays companies as a collection of value-adding activities that consume resources and are linked to each other via processes. Source: logipedia / Fraunhofer IML
  • Definition - Order-picking robot
    An order-picking robot is a robot for pick-and-place operations on the retrieval side of a storage solution. Source: logipedia / Fraunhofer IML
  • E-Commerce
    E-Commerce is the collective term for all activities on the Internet with regard to trade in goods, services and information. The spectrum can range from product information, customer inquiries and orders to payment transactions. E-C. is often used synonymously with the term e-business, which(...)
  • Europool pallet
    (in short: Euro pallet; basic dimensions 800 x 1,200 mm) is supported by the European pallet pool. The purpose and aim of the pool is to enable an uninterrupted transport chain with pallets of equal quality, safety and therefore exchangeability. In Germany, the European Pallet Association(...)
  • High-bay warehouse
    (abbr. HBW; High bay warehouse, high-bay storage facility is a storage type with the following characteristics: Rack height from about twelve meters Rail-bound storage and retrieval machines Silo construction Mostly automatic operation With the HBW, large construction(...)
  • Key Performance Indicator
    Key performance indicators (abbr. KPI) are indicators at a high level of aggregation, which can be used to directly assess the current performance and functionality of a system. See also Benchmarking and Supply Chain Operations Reference Scheme. A KPI is also is an agreed-upon quality(...)
  • Order lead time
    Order lead time is derived from the partial times of the affected functional areas and workstations. A distinction can be made between physical and information technology processes. Source: logipedia / Fraunhofer IML
  • Orderline
    Meaning and use of orderlines in order items. An "orderline" is of fundamental importance in business processes, especially in order management and e-commerce. An orderline is a specific line in an order that represents a single item. There can be multiple orderlines in an order, each(...)
  • Packing material
    Packing material is the term for material used to wrap and hold together packaged goods for shipping, storage and sales purposes (DIN 55405). Source: logipedia / Fraunhofer IML
  • Procurement logistics
    Procurement logistics refers to the totality of logistical tasks and measures for the preparation and execution of the flow of goods from purchasing to transport to goods receipt. Cf. e-procurement. Source: logipedia / Fraunhofer IML
  • Production Logistics
    Production logistics comprises all logistical activities, measures and topics that result from the provision of inventory or services. It is a link in the logistics chain between procurement logistics and sales logistics. Examples of P.'s activities are planning, control, transport and storage(...)
  • Return
    A return is a customer return delivery, which under certain circumstances is connected with complaints regarding missing articles or quantities, wrong articles, quality and packaging defects, etc. In the mail-order business, the return is one of the planned business processes, because e.g. in(...)
  • Single Point of Truth
    The term "Single Point of Truth" (SPOT) or "Single Source of Truth" (SSOT) is an important structural principle in the field of data management. It refers to a central data platform that is accessed by all other information(...)
  • SPOT
    The term "Single Point of Truth" (SPOT) or "Single Source of Truth" (SSOT) is an important structural principle in the field of data management. It refers to a central data platform that is accessed by all other information(...)
  • Stock-keeping Unit
    SKU stands for stock keeping unit and is applied to articles or packaged collections of articles within a warehouse. An SKU documents all attributes associated with the product that distinguish it from others, such as manufacturer, size, color, packaging, special handling requirements,(...)
  • Stub aisle strategy in order picking
    The stub aisle strategy is a proven method in order picking systems based on the Person-to-Goods principle, which aims to reduce the amount of walking required by personnel and increase efficiency in order processing. In this strategy, the central question is how to minimize the walking(...)
  • The 6R rule in logistics
    In the world of logistics, the 6R Rule is a key principle that helps companies achieve their goals efficiently. The 6R rule, also "Six R Rule," encompasses six essential factors that are critical to successful and smooth logistics operations. The right goods: The first step in logistics(...)
  • Three-Tier Software Architecture
    The three-tier software architecture is a layer model in client/server systems with operator interface (workstation, PC), application server and central (database) server. Source: logipedia / Fraunhofer IML
  • Two-stage order picking
    Two-stage picking, also known as batch picking or two-stage order picking, is an efficient procedure in logistics that aims to optimize order processing and speed up picking processes. In this process, several customer orders are combined into a so-called batch and processed in two successive(...)
  • Value-added Services
    (abbr. VAS) are value-added services that are not part of the main activities (such as transport, handling, storage) of a logistics service provider. VAS can be of an originally logistical nature, such as transport packaging, weighing or customs handling, or of an originally non-logistical(...)
  • Zero-crossing
    Zero crossing occurs when the stock quantity of an article at a staging location is less than or equal to the upcoming withdrawal requirement. A distinction must be made between intentional and unintentional Zero-crossing. In the case of intentional Zero-crossing, booked inventory and physical(...)

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